Potao Express samples

http://www.welivesecurity.com/2015/07/30/operation-potao-express/

http://www.welivesecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Operation-Potao-Express_final_v2.pdf

TL; DR

2011- July 2015
  • Aka  Sapotao and node69
  • Group – Sandworm / Quedagh APT
  • Vectors – USB, exe as doc, xls
  • Victims – RU, BY, AM, GE 
  • Victims – MMM group, UA gov
  • truecryptrussia.ru has been serving modified versions of the encryption software (Win32/FakeTC) that included a backdoor to selected targets. 
  • Win32/FakeTC – data theft from encrypted drives
  • The Potao main DLL only takes care of its core functionality; the actual spying functions are implemented in the form of downloadable modules. The plugins are downloaded each time the malware starts, since they aren’t stored on the hard drive.
  • 1st Full Plugin and its export function is called Plug. Full plugins run continuously until the infected system is restarted
  • 2nd Light Plugin with an export function Scan. Light plugins terminate immediately after returning a buffer with the information they harvested off the victim’s machine.
  • Some of the plugins were signed with a certificate issued to “Grandtorg”:
  • Traffic 
  • Strong encryption. The data sent is encapsulated using the XML-RPC protocol.
  • MethodName value 10a7d030-1a61-11e3-beea-001c42e2a08b is always present in Potao traffic.
  • After receiving the request the C&C server generates an RSA-2048 public key and signs this generated key with another, static RSA-2048 private key .
  • In 2nd stage the malware generates a symmetric AES-256 key. This AES session key is encrypted with the newly received RSA-2048 public key and sent to the C&C server.
  • The actual data exchange after the key exchange is then encrypted using symmetric cryptography, which is faster, with the AES-256 key
  • The Potao malware sends an encrypted request to the server with computer ID, campaign ID, OS version, version of malware, computer name, current privileges, OS architecture (64 or 32bits) and also the name of the current process.
  • Potao USB – uses social engineering, exe in the root disguised as drive icon
  • Potao Anti RE –  uses the MurmurHash2 algorithm for computing the hashes of the API function names.
  • Potao Anti RE – encryption of strings
  • Russian TrueCrypt Win32/FakeTC – The malicious program code within the otherwise functional TrueCrypt software runs in its own thread. This thread, created at the end of the Mount function, enumerates files on the mounted encrypted drive, and if certain conditions are met, it connects to the C&C server, ready to execute commands from the attackers.
  • IOC https://github.com/eset/malware-ioc/tree/master/potao
Type SHA256 MD5
1stVersion 1fe6af3d704d2fc0c7acd58b069a31eec866668ec6e25f52354e6e61266db8db 85b0e3264820008a30f17ca19332fa19
1stVersion 2ff0941fe3514abc12484ad2853d22fd7cb36469a313b5ecb6ef0c6391cf78ab ac854a3c91d52bfc09605506e76975ae
1stVersion 54a76f5cd5a32ed7d5fa78e5d8311bafc0de57a475bc2fddc23ee4b3510b9d44 3b7d88a069631111d5585b1b10cccc86
1stVersion 76c7c67274cf5384615a120e69be3af64cc31d9c4f05ff2031120612443c8360 d1658b792dd1569abc27966083f59d44
1stVersion 244c181eb442fefcf1e1daf900896bee6569481c0e885e3c63efeef86cd64c55 0c7183d761f15772b7e9c788be601d29
1stVersion 887a721254486263f1f3f25f3c677da62ef5c062c3afa7ef70c895bc8b17b424 a35e48909a49334a7ebb5448a78dcff9
1stVersion 945c594aee1b5bd0f3a72abe8f5a3df74fc6ca686887db5e40fe859e3fc90bb1 502f35002b1a95f1ae135baff6cff836
1stVersion ab8d308fd59a8db8a130fcfdb6db56c4f7717877c465be98f71284bdfccdfa25 a446ced5db1de877cf78f77741e2a804
1stVersion b22a614a291111398657cf8d1fa64fa50ed9c66c66a0b09d08c53972c6536766 d939a05e1e3c9d7b6127d503c025dbc4
1stVersion fcfdcbdd60f105af1362cfeb3decbbbbe09d5fc82bde6ee8dfd846b2b844f972 14634d446471b9e2f55158d9ac09d0b2
DebugVersion 910f55e1c4e75696405e158e40b55238d767730c60119539b644ef3e6bc32a5d 7263a328f0d47c76b4e103546b648484
DebugVersion c821cb34c86ec259af37c389a8f6cd635d98753576c675882c9896025a1abc53 bdc9255df5385f534fea83b497c371c8
DebugVersion f845778c3f2e3272145621776a90f662ee9344e3ae550c76f65fd954e7277d19 5199fcd031987834ed3121fb316f4970
Droppersfrompostalsites 4dcf14c41b31f8accf9683917bfc9159b9178d6fe36227195fabc232909452af 65f494580c95e10541d1f377c0a7bd49
Droppersfrompostalsites 8bc189dee0a71b3a8a1767e95cc726e13808ed7d2e9546a9d6b6843cea5eb3bd a4b0615cb639607e6905437dd900c059
Droppersfrompostalsites 048621ecf8f25133b2b09d512bb0fe15fc274ec7cb2ccc966aeb44d7a88beb5b 07e99b2f572b84af5c4504c23f1653bb
Droppersfrompostalsites aa23a93d2fed81daacb93ea7ad633426e04fcd063ff2ea6c0af5649c6cfa0385 1927a80cd45f0d27b1ae034c11ddedb0
Droppersfrompostalsites c66955f667e9045ea5591ebf9b59246ad86227f174ea817d1398815a292b8c88 579ad4a596602a10b7cf4659b6b6909d
Droppersfrompostalsites d6f126ab387f1d856672c730991573385c5746c7c84738ab97b13c897063ff4a e64eb8b571f655b744c9154d8032caef
Dropperswdecoy 61dd8b60ac35e91771d9ed4f337cd63e0aa6d0a0c5a17bb28cac59b3c21c24a9 d755e52ba5658a639c778c22d1a906a3
Dropperswdecoy 4328b06093a4ad01f828dc837053cb058fe00f3a7fd5cfb9d1ff7feb7ebb8e32 b4d909077aa25f31386722e716a5305c
Dropperswdecoy 15760f0979f2ba1b4d991f19e8b59fc1e61632fcc88755a4d147c0f5d47965c5 fc4b285088413127b6d827656b9d0481
Dropperswdecoy b9c285f485421177e616a148410ddc5b02e43f0af375d3141b7e829f7d487bfd 73e7ee83133a175b815059f1af79ab1b
Dropperswdecoy cf3b0d8e9a7d0ad32351ade0c52de583b5ca2f72e5af4adbf638c81f4ad8fbcb eebbcb1ed5f5606aec296168dee39166
Dropperswdecoy dbc1b98b1df1d9c2dc8a5635682ed44a91df6359264ed63370724afa9f19c7ee 5a24a7370f35dbdbb81adf52e769a442
FakeTrueCryptextractedexe 4c01ffcc90e6271374b34b252fefb5d6fffda29f6ad645a879a159f78e095979 b64dbe5817b24d17a0404e9b2606ad96
FakeTrueCryptextractedexe 5de8c04a77e37dc1860da490453085506f8aa378fbc7d811128694d8581b89ba 7ca6101c2ae4838fbbd7ceb0b2354e43
FakeTrueCryptextractedexe 73aae05fab96290cabbe4b0ec561d2f6d79da71834509c4b1f4b9ae714159b42 f64704ed25f4c728af996eee3ee85411
FakeTrueCryptextractedexe c7212d249b5eb7e2cea948a173ce96e1d2b8c44dcc2bb1d101dce64bb3f5becc c1f715ff0afc78af81d215d485cc235c
FakeTrueCryptSetup 42028874fae37ad9dc89eb37149ecb1e6439869918309a07f056924c1b981def f34b77f7b2233ee6f727d59fb28f438a
FakeTrueCryptSetup a3a43bbc69e24c0bc3ab06fbf3ccc35cf8687e2862f86fb0d269258b68c710c9 babd17701cbe876149dc07e68ec7ca4f
FakeTrueCryptSetup b8844e5b72971fe67d2905e77ddaa3366ae1c3bead92be6effd58691bc1ff8ec cfc8901fe6a9a8299087bfc73ae8909e
FakeTrueCryptSetup fe3547f0e052c71f872bf09cdc1654137ee68f878fc6d5a78df16a13e6de1768 83f3ec97a95595ebe40a75e94c98a7bd
OtherDroppers 2de76a3c07344ce322151dbb42febdff97ade8176466a3af07e5280bd859a186 38e708fea8016520cb25d3cb933f2244
OtherDroppers 4e88b8b121d768c611fe16ae1f008502b2191edc6f2ee84fef7b12b4d86fe000 360df4c2f2b99052c07e08edbe15ab2c
OtherDroppers 29dfc81b400a1400782623c618cb1d507f5d17bb13de44f123a333093648048f 89a3ea3967745e04199ebf222494452e
OtherDroppers 97afe4b12a9fed40ad20ab191ba0a577f5a46cbfb307e118a7ae69d04adc2e2d 6ba88e8e74b12c914483c026ae92eb42
OtherDroppers 793a8ce811f423dfde47a5f44ae50e19e7e41ad055e56c7345927eac951e966b 043f99a875424ca0023a21739dba51ef
OtherDroppers 904bb2efe661f654425e691b7748556e558a636d4f25c43af9d2d4dfbe83262e 02d438df779affddaf02ca995c60cecb
OtherDroppers b62589ee5ba94d15edcf8613e3d57255dd7a12fce6d2dbd660fd7281ce6234f4 11b4e7ea6bae19a29343ae3ff3fb00ca
OtherDroppers d2c11706736fda2b178ac388206472fd8d050e0f13568c84b37683423acd155d 27d74523b182ae630c4e5236897e11f3
OtherDroppers f1f61a0f9488be3925665f8063006f90fab1bf0bd0b6ff5f7799f8995ff8960e 1ab8d45656e245aca4e59aa0519f6ba0
USBSpreaders 1acae7c11fb559b81df5fc6d0df0fe502e87f674ca9f4aefc2d7d8f828ba7f5c 76dda7ca15323fd658054e0550149b7b
USBSpreaders 3d78f52fa0c08d8bf3d42074bf76ee56aa233fb9a6bc76119998d085d94368ca ca1a3618088f91b8fb2a30c9a9aa4aca
USBSpreaders 7d15bd854c1dfef847cdd3caabdf4ab81f2410ee5c7f91d377cc72eb81135ff4 a2bb01b764491dd61fa3a7ba5afc709c
USBSpreaders 09c04206b57bb8582faffb37e4ebb6867a02492ffc08268bcbc717708d1a8919 a59053cc3f66e72540634eb7895824ac
USBSpreaders 12bb18fa9a12cb89dea3733b342940b80cd453886390079cb4c2ffcd664baeda 2bd0d2b5ee4e93717ea71445b102e38e
USBSpreaders 34e6fb074284e58ca80961feda4fe651d6d658077914a528a4a6efa91ecc749d 057028e46ea797834da401e4db7c860a
USBSpreaders 90b20b1687909c2f76f750ba3fd4b14731ce736c08c3a8608d28eae3f4cd68f3 514423670de210f13092d6cb8916748e
USBSpreaders 93accb71bf4e776955756c76990298decfebe4b1dd9fbf9d368e81dc1cb9532d abb9f4fab64dd7a03574abdd1076b5ea
USBSpreaders 99a09ad92cc1a2564f3051057383cb6268893bc4a62903eabf3538c6bfb3aa9c 542b00f903f945ad3a9291cb0af73446
USBSpreaders 339a5199e6d0b5f781b08b2ca0ad0495e75e52b8e2fd69e1d970388fbca7a0d6 a427ff7abb17af6cf5fb70c49e9bf4e1
USBSpreaders 340b09d661a6ac45af53c348a5c1846ad6323d34311e66454e46c1d38d53af8b 2646f7159e1723f089d63e08c8bfaffb
USBSpreaders 461dd5a58ffcad9fffba9181e234f2e0149c8b8ba28c7ea53753c74fdfa0b0d5 609abb2a86c324bbb9ba1e253595e573
USBSpreaders 4688afcc161603bfa1c997b6d71b9618be96f9ff980e5486c451b1cc2c5076cb ae552fc43f1ba8684655d8bf8c6af869
USBSpreaders 7492e84a30e890ebe3ca5140ad547965cc8c43f0a02f66be153b038a73ee5314 1234bf4f0f5debc800d85c1bd2255671
USBSpreaders 61862a55dcf8212ce9dd4a8f0c92447a6c7093681c592eb937a247e38c8109d4 e685ea8b37f707f3706d7281b8f6816a
USBSpreaders 95631685006ac92b7eb0755274e2a36a3c9058cf462dd46f9f4f66e8d67b9db2 9179f4683ece450c1ac7a819b32bdb6d
USBSpreaders b8b02cc57e45bcf500b433806e6a4f8af7f0ac0c5fc9adfd11820eebf4eb5d79 cdc60eb93b594fb5e7e5895e2b441240
USBSpreaders e57eb9f7fdf3f0e90b1755d947f1fe7bb65e67308f1f4a8c25bc2946512934b7 39b67cc6dae5214328022c44f28ced8b
USBSpreaders e3892d2d9f87ea848477529458d025898b24a6802eb4df13e96b0314334635d0 3813b848162261cc5982dd64c741b450
USBSpreaders f1d7e36af4c30bf3d680c87bbc4430de282d00323bf8ae9e17b04862af286736 35724e234f6258e601257fb219db9079

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